Overview – What is it?
Kidney stones are hard crystalline deposits made of minerals and salts from urine that form inside the kidney(s). They can also be referred to as nephrolithiasis or renal lithiasis.
Some of the risk factors for this kidney stones are dehydration, climate and certain diets such as foods high in protein, salt and sugar.
The symptoms for kidney stones include pain in the lower abdomen and groin, pain when urinating and passing pink, red or brown urine.
Kidney stones can be diagnosed by doing a urine test, a blood test and imaging tests.
They can be treated by taking plenty of water, taking pain relievers if they are causing too much pain and even through surgery.
To prevent yourself from getting kidney stones, you should eat healthy and take a lot of water, among other measures that can reduce your risk factors.
Causes – What causes it?
Kidney stones occur when deposits of minerals and salts from urine collect and form hard crystalline materials in the kidneys which can be small (the size of a grain of sand) or big like a golf ball. The different types of kidney stones depend on the cause, and include:
In some cases, kidney stones do not cause any symptoms, but if they pass into the ureter or move around the kidney, they may cause the following symptoms:
- Pain during urination
- Having a burning sensation when urinating
- Urinating more often than usual
- Urinating in small amounts
- Severe pain in the side and back below the ribs
- Severe pain in the lower abdomen and groin
- Cloudy and foul-smelling urine
- Passing urine that is red, pink or brown in colour
- Nausea and vomiting
- Fever and chills especially if the kidney stones are caused by infection